Zebra Mussel Collection & ZequanoxTM

Zequanox Presentation by Dr. Daniel Molloy

Dr. Daniel Molloy, the inventor of Zequanox, discussed his 20 year study of zebra mussels and their impact on local lakes during a meeting hosted by the Douglas County Citizen's Committee.  View the webcast of the July 13th meeting and read the accompanying handoutsClick here to order zebra mussel signage.

Also view  Dr. Molloy’s presentation on AIS and his Zequanox treatment from September 12, 2011.


Due to its significant environmental and economic impacts, the zebra mussel is widely recognized as the poster child of aquatic invasive species in North America.  Lakes in Douglas County have zebra mussel infestations. The Douglas County Lake Association (DCLA)has taken the research and endorsed recommendations of the Douglas County Citizens’ Committee (Carl Towley, Bonnie Huettl and Lois Sinn Lindquist) to an exciting level – the exploration of the effectiveness of ZequanoxTM – a new, promising, environmentally friendly biopesticide – testing as a control agent in small-scale demonstration projects in their chain of lakes.  Although ZequanoxTM has proven its effectiveness in treatment of zebra mussel infested pipes within industrial facilities, its effectiveness in controlling zebra mussels in open water environments (e.g., lakes and rives) has yet to be evaluated.  An overall research plan is scheduled for July through October of this year by the commercial developer of ZequanoxTM, Marrone Bio Innovations.  Minnesota DNR is interested.  The testing program is laid out in three sequential phases.  Each of the test phases is designed to confirm high rates of mussel kill in incrementally larger volumes of lake water and under increasingly more realistic “field-like” treatment conditions.  These phases are:

1.  Initial laboratory (indoor) “jar tests 

  •  Purpose:  mussel kill assessed in glass jars containing ~0.5 liters of water

2.  Subsequent laboratory (indoor) “biobox tests” 

  •  Purpose:  mussel kill assessed in glass aquaria containing ~30 liters of water

3.  Small-scale “mesocosms” field trials into October 

  •  Purpose:  mussel kill assessed in shallow, physically isolated sections of water column along the lake shore containing ~300 liters of water

Although small-scale, the proposed field trials will provide valuable information to DCLA as to the effectiveness of ZequanoxTM in the open water environment of our lakes.

ZequanoxTM is an effective, safe and environmentally friendly product for control of invasive zebra and quagga mussels.  The microbial active ingredient, Pseudomonas fluorescens in ZequanoxTM (USEPA registration #84059-U), can be found worldwide and is present in all North American bodies of water and commonly found food.  Only the specific environmental isolate used in ZequanoxTM (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL 145A), however, is active against dreissenid mussels.  In nature, Pseudomonas fluorescens is a harmless, plant growth promoting bacterial species that is known to live in association with plant roots, protecting them from disease.  ZequanoxTM will significantly reduce the use of polluting chemicals n industrial facilities and will be the first environmentally safe method considered for invasive mussel control in open waters.

Completion of all data analysis and project report expected in December 2011.  January through May 2012 is slated to procure funding to expand the project to larger size lake applications.

Minnesota Waters will stay close to this project.  We applaud the leadership of the Douglas County Commissioners in their appointment of the Douglas County Citizens’ Committee who has taken the notion of a threat to the possibilities of aggressive treatment.